Frequently Asked Questions

How to download products' specification ?

If you want to download our products’ specification or data sheet, pls click the download area for more. We only present some of the datasheets, if you want more, pls contact our sales team: sales@optcore.net

Is the module compatible with other brand switch ?

Our optical transceiver modules compatible with the famous brands such as Cisco,Huawei,HP,3COM,Foundry,Alcatel,Extreme,Juniper,D-LINK,ZyXEL and so on.

Can we get the sample from you ?

Sure we are pleased to provide the samples for clients’ evalution. For small amount, we will provide the sample for free, clients burden the delivery cost. Theamount need be checked with Optcore. For large amount, clients need pay for the sample fee in FOB base and burden the delivery cost. However, usually, the sample fees will be charged after order confirmed.

How can i buy from you ?

There are three channels for you to buy from us.
• Buy from us directly: Place a Purchase Order or  Proforma Invoice Order to us, for more information, please click here.
• Buy from online store: You may buy from our online store on Ebay and Aliexpress to save the time.
• Buy from our partner:  You may buy from our channel partner all over the world to save much time and get faster,convenient support, Email to us at sales@optcore.net to request our channel partner informaiton in your country.

What's the lead time after placing the order ?

Usually, it takes about 2 days after order received. However, it would depends on our production line schedule (the timing clients place order) and the complication of the item.

How much does shipping cost ?

Shipping costs depend on your destination,the quantity and weight of goods. Optcore makes no any charge for the shipping cost, and we are always working with you to lower the shipping cost. We usually choose from the following express shipping options:TNT, EMS, UPS, FedEx, DHL,HongKong Post.

What is the payment terms ?

It is around 1 to 3 business days, depends on which bank you use and your location. For more information, please click here.

When will I receive my refund ?

The refund caused by order cancellation, RMA return or refund agreement will be process within 3~5 working days. However, it may take 7-10 working days to receive your refunds. Refunds are usually issued based on the payment method used at the time of purchase. However, we have the right to choose the refund method by Bank Transfer, Western Union or Paypal.

What's the Inco-term for making business with Optcore ?

Usually, we send the shipments in FOB term. However, the terms of CIF,C&F and DDU are acceptable, which depends on the preference of clients.

How about the Lead Time ?

Generally, orders are delivered within 1-3 working days. However, an extension can be made if you have customized request or you order some special items. The following the lead time for your reference.

Product

Lead Time

Optical Transceiver

SFP/SFP+/XFP/XENPAK/X2(~20km)

Estimate 1-2 working days

SFP/SFP+/XFP/XENPAK/X2(40~160km)

Estimate 2-6 working days

GBIC

Estimate 2-6 working days

CWDM SFP/SFP+/XFP/XENPAK/X2

Estimate 3-8 working days

DWDM SFP/SFP+/XFP/XENPAK/X2

Estimate 5-15 working days

Direct Attach Cables (DAC)

Estimate 1-4 working days

Active Optical Cables (AOC)

Estimate 2-6 working days

3G SDI Video SFP

Estimate 8-15 working days

40G QSFP+/CFP

Estimate 2-6 working days

GPON/EPON

Estimate 2-6 working days

SFF(155Mb/s~2.5Gb/s)

Estimate 5-15 working days

1*9 (0Mb/s~2.5Gb/s)

Estimate 2-6 working days

Customized Transceivers

Estimate 7-20 working days

Fiber Media Converters

Standard Product

Estimate 2-5 working days

Customized Media Converter

Estimate 10-20 working days

Passive Products

Fiber Patch Cord

Estimate 2-6 working days

MPO MTP Fiber Patch Cord

Estimate 5-10 working days

Fiber Optic Adapters

Estimate 2-6 working days

Fiber Connectors

Estimate 2-6 working days

CWDM MUX/DEMUX

Estimate 5-10 working days

How long it takes for you to get the payment after we make the transfer ?

By T/T,Paypal or Western Union in Advance is available or needs discussion. For more information, please click here.

1080p

Described sometimes as “full HD,” has 1080 vertical lines of progressive scan (hence the “p”) resolution in a 16:9 aspect widescreen and a 1920 x 1080 frame resolution; compare with 1080i, which is an interlaced screen format.

802.11

A set of IEEE standards that specifies medium-access and physical-layer specifications for wireless local area networks (WLAN).

802.3

The IEEE standards committee defining Ethernet networking.

802.4

An IEEE standard for bus topology networks that defines token passing to control access and network traffic, running at 10Mbps a second.

1000Base-CX

1-Gigabit Ethernet supporting 25m operation over twinaxial cable.

1000Base-LX

Standard for data transmission of 1000 Mbps ethernet using fiber optic cables at a wavelength of 1300 nm.

1000Base-SX

Standard for data transmission of 1000 Mbps ethernet using fiber optic cables at a wavelength of 850 nm.

1000BASE-T

Another high-speed version of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard. Often called Gigabit Ethernet. It transmits at 1000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps, and it’s commonly used for Ethernet backbone connections.

1000Base-X

A networking technology supporting Gigabit Ethernet over fiber optic cable.

1000Base-ZX

1000-Mbps Gigabit Ethernet specification using two strands of single-mode fiber-optic cable per link.

100BASE-FX

100 Mpbs Fast Ethernet, based on 4B/5B encoding with fibre optics.

100BASE-SX

850 nm fiber optic technology that supports auto-negotiation. 100BASE-SX devices can communicate with 10BASE-FL devices at 10 Mbps and other 100BASE-SX devices at 100 Mbps.

100BASE-T

A high-speed version of Ethernet (IEEE 802.3). Also called Fast Ethernet, 100BASE-T transmits at 100 Mbps.

100Base-TX

A networking standard that supports data transfer rates up to 100 Mbps (100 megabits per second).

100GE

100 Gigabit Ethernet,a standard in development that will enable the transfer of Ethernet frames at 100 gigabits per second (gp/s)

10BASE-2

A thin-coaxial-cable version of an IEEE 802.3 network.

10BASE-FL

Popular 10 Mbps link fibre optic solution which replaces the older FOIRL implementation utilizing 850 nm fibre optic technology.

10BASE-T

The most common 10-Mbps Ethernet standard. It uses twisted-pair wires and RJ-45 connectors.

10GBase-CX4

A 10,000 Mbit/s version of Ethernet supporting 15m operation over infiniband cabling. 10GBase-Fx IEEE 802.3ae. A 10,000 Mbit/s.

10GBase-ER

A Physical layer standard for achieving 10-Gbps data transmission over singlemode, fiber-optic cable. In 10GBase-ER, the ER stands for extended reach. This standard specifies a star topology and segment lengths up to 40,000 meters.

10GBase-EW

A variation of the 10GBase-ER standard that is specially encoded to operate over SONET links.

10GBase-LR

A Physical layer standard for achieving 10-Gbps data transmission over singlemode, fiber-optic cable using wavelengths of 1310 nanometers. In 10GBase-LR, the LR stands for long reach. This standard specifies a star topology and segment lengths up to 10,000 meters.

10GBase-LRM

Serial Gigabit Ethernet for 220 m of 62.5-micron multimode fiber

10GBase-LW

A variation of the 10GBase-LR standard that is specially encoded to operate over SONET links.

10GBase-SR

A Physical layer standard for achieving 10-Gbps data transmission over multimode fiber using wavelengths of 850 nanometers. The maximum segment length for 10GBase-SR can reach up to 300 meters, depending on the fiber core diameter and modal bandwidth used.

10GBase-SW

A variation of the 10GBase-SR standard that is specially encoded to operate over SONET links.

10GBase-T

A Physical layer standard for achieving 10-Gbps data transmission over twisted pair cable. Described in its 2006 standard 802.3an, IEEE specifies Cat 6 or Cat 7 cable as the appropriate medium for 10GBase-T. The maximum segment length for 10GBase-T is 100 meters.

10GBase-ZR

A Physical layer standard Uses one Rx single-mode fiber and one Tx single-mode fiber to transmit data at 10 Gbit/s over a distance within 80 km.

10GBase-ZW

A variation of the 10GBase-ZR standard that is specially encoded to operate over SONET links.

10GbE

10-Gigabit Ethernet, a version of Ethernet operating at 10,000 Mbit/s over twisted pair copper and optical fibre cabling.

1U

Abbreviation for ‘one unit’ or ”rack unit – RU’, ‘U’ = 1.75 inches.

25G

25 Gbit/s Ethernet

40GbE

A standard that enables the transfer of Ethernet frames at speeds of up to 40 gigabits per second (Gbps).

4B/5B

A block encoding scheme used to send Fast Ethernet data. In this signal encoding scheme, 4 bits of data are turned into 5-bit code symbols for transmission over the media system.

802.11a

The IEEE standard that governs the deployment of 5GHz OFDM systems. It specifies the implementation of the physical layer for wireless UNII b.

802.11b

An international IEEE standard for WLAN networks, operating at 2.4GHz and providing a maximum data transfer rate of 11Mbps

802.11g

A proposed standard that describes a wireless networking method for a WLAN that operates in the 2.4GHz radio band (ISM: Industrial Scientific Medical frequency band). It transfers data at up to 54Mbps.

802.3ab

The IEEE standard that describes 1000Base-T, a 1-gigabit Ethernet technology that runs over four pairs of Cat 5 or better cable.

802.3ae

The IEEE standard that describes 10-gigabit Ethernet technologies, including 10GBase-SR, 10GBase-SW, 10GBase-LR, 10GBase-LW, 10GBase-ER, and 10GBase-EW.

802.3an

The IEEE standard that describes 10GBase-T, a 10-Gbps Ethernet technology that runs on Cat 6 or Cat 7 twisted pair cable

802.3z

The IEEE standard that describes 1000Base (or 1-gigabit) Ethernet technologies, including 1000Base-LX and 1000Base-SX.

Abrasive

A material such as silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, silica, cerium oxide, emery or rouge that is used to figure, shape, or finish optical elements. Abrasives differ from polishing materials mainly in particle size.

AC

Abbreviation for alternating current. An electric current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring intervals.

Acceptance Angle

The half-angle of the cone (a) within which incident light is totally internally reflected by the fiber core. It is equal to sin-1(NA).

Acceptance Cone

A cone angled area that light must enter in order to “bounce” down the fiber and remain in the core of the fiber.

Access Jumper

A length of fiber placed between the OTDR and the first event along a fiber that is to be measured. Allows the user to see fiber on both sides of the event so that its loss can be estimated. Length must be significantly greater than the OTDR attenuation dead zone.
(Also Known as: Launch Cable)

Active Device

A device that requires a source of energy for its operation and has an output that is a function of present and past input signals. Examples include controlled power supplies, transistors, amplifiers, and transmitters.

Adapter

A mechanical termination device designed to align and join optical fiber connectors; often referred to as a coupling or interconnect sleeve.
(Also Known as: Bulkhead, Coupling Sleeve, Interconnect Sleeve, Sleeve, Coupler, Bulkhead Adapter)

Add/Drop Multiplexing

An important element of an optical fiber network. A multiplexer combines, or multiplexes, several lower-bandwidth streams of data into a single beam of light. An add-drop multiplexer also has the capability to add one or more lower-bandwidth signals to an existing high-bandwidth data stream, and at the same time can extract or drop other low-bandwidth signals, removing them from the stream and redirecting them to some other network path.

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line service, ADSL (ANSI standard T1.413) is commonly used for downstream transmissions like Internet access in homes or businesses. Its downstream/upstream transmission rates range from 9 Mbps/640 kbps over short distances to 1.544 Mbps/16 kbps over longer distances.

AFAN

All-fiber access network. Used primarily in cable TV (CATV) market.

Alligator Clips

A hardware used for bonding and grounding metallic components of fiber optic cable.

Amplifier

A device, inserted within a transmission path, that boosts the strength of an electronic or optical signal. Amplifiers may be placed just after the transmitter (power booster), at a distance between the transmitter and the receiver (in-line amplifier), or just before the receiver (preamplifier).

Amplifier Noise

Noise introduced to a signal in an amplifier device.

Analog

A continuously variable signal. Opposite of digital.

APC

Angled physical contact. Connectors which have their end-face mating surface polished at an eight-degree angle to the fiber axis. Minimizes reflections; required in RF video applications.

APD

A photodiode that exhibits internal amplification of photocurrent through avalanche multiplication of carriers in the junction region.

APN

In a GSM-based network, the APN (Access Point Name) is the name of an access point for GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) or 3G connections. An access point identifies an external network to which a mobile device can connect. Access Point Name (APN) describes the settings that are used for such a connection.

APON

ATM (-based) passive optical network

AR Coating

Antireflection coating. A thin, dielectric or metallic film applied to an optical surface to reduce its reflectance and thereby increase its transmittance.

Armor

Additional protective element beneath the cable jacket. It is an outer jacket used to provide protection against severe outdoor environments and gnawing rodents. Usually made of plastic-coated steel, it may be corrugated for flexibilty.

ASCII

Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange,the most widely used Character Set in computer technology.

ASIC

Abbreviation for application-specific integrated circuit. A custom-designed integrated circuit.

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode,A high-speed cell-switching network technology that handles high rate data and real-time voice and video.It is a transmission standard widely used by the telecom industry.

Attenuation

The decrease in magnitude of a current, voltage or power of a signal in transmission between points because of the transmission medium.  A term usually used for expressing the total loss of an optical system, normally measured in decibels (dB) at a specific wavelength.

Attenuation Coefficient

The rate of optical power loss with respect to distance along the fiber, usually measured in decibels per kilometer (dB/km) at a specific wavelength; the lower the number, the better the fiber’s attenuation. Typical multimode wavelengths are 850 and 1300 nanometers (nm); single-mode wavelengths are 1310 and 1550 nm.
B

Attenuator

A passive optical component that intentionally reduces the optical power propagating in a fiber.

AUI

Attachment Unit Interface,The network interface used with standard Ethernet (10BASE5); it’s a 15-pin socket.

Auto-MDIX

A protocol which allows two Ethernet devices to negotiate their use of the Ethernet TX and RX cable pairs so two Ethernet devices can connect whether using a crossover cable or a straight-through cable.

Auto-negotiation

Auto-negotiation means automatic recognition of the opposite end’s functions. By using RJ45 plugs for the different protocols, from 10Base-T to 100Base-T, a compatibility problem occurs which is solved due automatic recognition of the opposite end. Using the auto-negotiation procedure, repeaters or terminal equipment can determine what functions the other end has, so that different devices can be configured automatically

Average Power

The average level of power in a signal that varies with time.

Adjustable Attenuator

An attenuator in which the level of attenuation is varied with an internal adjustment. Also known as variable Attenuator.

All Silica Fiber

Also known as all-glass fiber. A Fiber with both a Silica Core and a silica cladding, regardless of the presence of a polymer overcoat or buffer.

All Solid State Lasers

Laser systems containing solid-state devices only.

A/B Switch

A device that accepts inputs (optical or electrical) from a primary path and a secondary path to provide automatic or manual switching in the event that the primary path signal is broken or otherwise disrupted. In optical A/B switches, optical signal power thresholds dictate whether the primary path is functioning and signals a switch to the secondary path until optical power is restored to the primary path.

AWG

American Wire Gauge

Base Station

A base station (or basestation) is a wireless transceiver at a fixed location (e.g. atop a telephone pole) which is part of a wireless communications network, e.g. the cell phone network. Typically, the base station connects to any cell phones in its area and relays the calls to the wired network.
A femto base station is a smaller, personal base station which might cover a home or building and connect via a DSL Internet connection.

Baud Rate

Measurement of Data Transmission speed, expressed in bits per second or bps.

Baud

The number of signal level transitions per second in Digital data. The term is often confused with bits per second. Telecommunications specialists prefer to use “bits-per-second” to provide an accurate description.

BFOC

Bayonet Fiber optic Connector – standardized fiber optic connector for multi-mode and single-mode fibers at 10 Mbps, also referred to as an ST connector. The connector is secured with bayonet locking.

Back Reflection

A measure of the percentage of power reflected back by a discontinuity in a fiber optic line.

Bridge

A bridge is a device used to connect two separate
networks. The incoming data packets are filtered using
the destination address and are forwarded to the second
network or rejected. Bridges connect subnetworks
according to the iSo/oSi reference model using protocols
on layer 2.

Broadcast

Broadcast refers to a collective call to all devices in the network that is not forwarded via routers and bridges.

Backplane

The rear of a device enclosure, where connectors are located, cables are attached, and components are inserted

Bandwidth

The range of frequencies available for signaling; the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of a band, measured in Hertz.

BERT/BLERT

(Bit Error Rate Test/Block Error Rate Test) — Tests that measure data-transmission quality by comparing received data with an established data pattern and then counting the number of mismatches (errors). Measurements are made of either bits or block errors.

Bit (Binary Digit)

The smallest unit of information in a binary system; a one (1) or zero (0) condition.

Byte

A unit of information, usually shorter than a computer “word.” Eight-bit bytes are most common. Also called a “character.”

Bend-Improved Optical Fiber

Class of optical fibers compatible with ITU G.657A recommendations and having bending performance of .75 dB per 360-degree turn at 1550 nm with a 10 mm bend radius. These fibers are required to be backward compatible with standard single-mode.
(Also Known as: ClearCurve® Fiber)

BISDN

Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network

BPON

Broadband Passive Optical Network. System described in ITU G983 standard. Uses optical splitters to create a one-to-many relation between the CO/HE and the subscribers. Capable of delivering voice and data; usually combined with an RF overlay for video. Usually no active (powered) components between CO/HE and subscriber.

Broadband

Typically referring to copper, it denotes transmission facilities capable of handling a wide range of frequencies simultaneously, thus permitting multiple channels in data systems rather than direct modulation.

Bundle

Many individual fibers contained within a single jacket or buffer tube. Also, a group of buffered fibers distinguished in some fashion from another group in the same cable core.

Baseband

A method of communication in which a signal is transmitted at its original frequency without being impressed on a carrier.

Baud

A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of signal symbols per second, which may or may not be equal to the data rate in bits per second.

Bend Radius

The smallest radius an optical fiber or fiber cable can bend before excessive attenuation or breakage occurs.

Bending Loss

Attenuation caused by high-order modes radiating from the outside of a fiber optic waveguide which occur when the fiber is bent around a small radius. See also macrobending, microbending.

BIDI

Abbreviation for bidirectional transceiver, a device that sends information in one direction and receives information from the opposite direction.

Bidirectional

Operating in both directions. Bidirectional couplers operate the same way regardless of the direction light passes through them. Bidirectional transmission sends signals in both directions, sometimes through the same fiber.

Bus Network

A network topology in which all terminals are attached to a transmission medium serving as a bus. Also called a daisy-chain configuration.

Butt Splice

A joining of two fibers without optical connectors arranged end-to-end by means of a coupling. Fusion splicing is an example.

Buffer

The protective coating over the fiber.

Baseband Transmission

A transmission method where direct current signals are placed directly onto the transmission medium (cable). Ethernet is a baseband network type, hence, the “Base” in 10Base-T, etc.

BER Bit Error Rate

Bit Error Rate. The number of bit errors that occur within the space of one second.

Bias

(1)To influence to a single direction; (2) Voltage that is applied to a solid-state device.

Bias

(1)To influence to a single direction; (2) Voltage that is applied to a solid-state device.

Bend insensitive fiber

Fibers that are designed for improved bend performance in reduced radius applications.

Breakout

Breakouts refer to a multiple-fiber cable connectorized with either many single connectors or one or more multiple-fiber connectors on either end. A breakout assembly makes use of the fact that fiber optic cable can be separated into multiple fibers that are easily distributed and terminated individually or in groups. Also called “fanouts.”

Backbone System

A transmission network that carries high-speed telecommunications between regions (e.g., a nationwide long-distance telephone system). Sometimes used to describe the part of a local area network that carries signals between branching points.

Blade Server

A blade server is a computer system on a motherboard, which includes processor(s), memory, a network connection, and sometimes storage. The blade idea is intended to address the needs of large-scale computing centers to reduce space requirements for application servers and lower costs.

Backbone Cabling

Subsystem cabling inter-linking equipment rooms and points of administration within and between buildings supporting the horizontal cabling subsystem

Burst Mode

1) A temporary high-speed data-transfer mode that can transfer data at significantly higher rates than would normally be achieved with nonburst technology.
2) The maximum short-term throughput which a device is capable of transferring data.

Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive electronic component that consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulating dielectric. A voltage applied to the plates develops an electric field across the dielectric and causes the plates to accumulate a charge. When the voltage source is removed, the field and the charge remain until discharged, storing energy.
Capacitance (or C, measured in farads), dictates the amount of charge that can be stored at a given voltage (a one-farad capacitor charged to one volt will hold one Coulomb of charge).

Chip

1. Integrated circuit: A semiconductor device that combines multiple transistors and other components and interconnects on a single piece of semiconductor material.
2. Encoding element, in Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum systems.

CE

A certification products must attain in order to be sold in the European Union (EU) that involves complying with a number of different EU standards including strong resistance to EMI/RFI as well as low EMI/RFI emissions.

Composite Link

The line or circuit connecting a pair of multiplexors or concentrators; the circuit carrying multiplexed data.

Cabling Harness

A cabling harness is used to eliminate clutter in situations where multiple cables are installed within close proximity to one another. A cabling harness takes all of the loose cables and pulls them closer together, in order to turn what would have been a mess of multiple cables into a single organized bundle.

Cable

Optical fibers and other material(s) assembled to provide mechanical and environmental protection for the fibers.

Cable Assembly

Optical fiber cable with connectors installed on one or both ends. Cable assemblies are generally used for interconnection of optical fiber Optical Communications and opto-electronic equipment. If connectors are attached to only one end of a cable, it is known as a pigtail. If connectors are attached to both ends of a low-fiber-count cable, it is known as a jumper or patch cord.
(Also Known as: Pigtail, Jumper, Patch Cord, CCA.)

Cable Bend Radius

Cable bend radius during installation infers that the cable is experiencing a tensile load. Free bend infers a smaller allowable bend radius since it is at a condition of no load.

Cable Plant

The cable plant consists of all the optical elements including fiber, connectors, splices, etc. between a transmitter and a receiver.

CATV

Community Antenna Television or Community Access Television

CWDM

Coarse wavelength time-division multiplexing.

C-Band

The wavelength range between 1530 nm and 1562 nm used in some CWDM and DWDM applications.

Center Wavelength

In a laser, the nominal value central operating wavelength. It is the wavelength defined by a peak mode measurement where the effective optical power resides (see illustration). In an LED, the average of the two wavelengths measured at the half amplitude points of the power spectrum.

Connector Receptacle

The fixed or stationary half of a connection that is mounted on a panel/bulkhead. Receptacles mate with plugs.

Coupler

A multiport device used to distribute optical power.

Carrier

In technology, the wave that is modulated with a signal carrying information. In business, a company that provides telecommunication services.

Cloud Network

Cloud networks are the combined solution of a private enterprise network with that of the global network footprint of cloud providers. They enable businesses to serve end-users and customers all over the world without the need to maintain a global network footprint of their own. Cloud networks are a key component of cloud converged infrastructure and act as the glue that enables business to extend their infrastructure seamlessly to leverage cloud services.

CAT5

CAT5 is an Ethernet network cable standard defined by the Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (commonly known as EIA/TIA). CAT5 is the fifth generation of twisted pair Ethernet technology and the most popular of all twisted pair cables in use today.

CAT6

CAT6 is an Ethernet cable standard defined by the Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (commonly known as EIA/TIA). CAT6 is the 6th generation of twisted pair Ethernet cabling – See more at: http://blog.dlink.com/glossary/cat6-category-6/#sthash.wTwyV9zy.dpuf

Control network

Security-critical networks that connect multiple control devices or operator control facilities of automation systems. A control network can be subdivided into multiple zones. At the same time, a company can have multiple control networks.

DAC

Direct Attach Cable

Dark Fiber

Optical fiber installed without transmitter and receiver, usually to provide expansion capacity. Some carries lease dark fibers to other companies that add equipment to transmit signals through them.

Data Communications Equipment

Devices providing the functions required to establish, maintain, and terminate a data-transmission connection—for example, Ethernet Swith and Router

Data Rate

The number of bits of information in a transmission system, expressed in bits per second (b/s or bps), and which may or may not be equal to the signal or baud rate.

dBm

Abbreviation for decibel relative to milliwatt.
dBµ: Abbreviation for decibel relative to microwatt.

Demultiplexer

A module that separates two or more signals previously combined by compatible multiplexing equipment.

Diameter-mismatch Loss

The loss of power at a joint that occurs when the transmitting fiber has a diameter greater than the diameter of the receiving fiber. The loss occurs when coupling light from a source to fiber, from fiber to fiber, or from fiber to detector.

Diode

An electronic device that lets current flow in only one direction. Semiconductor diodes used in fiber optics contain a junction between regions of different doping. They include light emitters (LEDs and laser diodes) and detectors (photodiodes).

DIP

Abbreviation for dual in-line package. An electronic package with a rectangular housing and a row of pins along each of two opposite sides.

Distributed Feedback Laser (DFB)

An injection laser diode which has a Bragg reflection grating in the active region in order to suppress multiple longitudinal modes and enhance a single longitudinal mode.

Duplex Cable

A two-fiber cable suitable for duplex transmission.

Duty Cycle

In a digital transmission, the fraction of time a signal is at the high level.

Duty Cycle Distortion Jitter

Distortion usually caused by propagation delay differences between low-to-high and high-to-low transitions. DCD is manifested as a pulse width distortion of the nominal baud time.

Detector

A photodiode that converts optical signals to electrical signals.

Dispersion

The temporal spreading of a pulse in an optical waveguide. May be caused by modal or chromatic effects.

Distribution Panel

For fiber optic applications, this is both a patch panel and splice panel, usually installed at a hub or entrance facility

DQPSK

Differential quadrature phase-shift keying

DWDM

Dense wavelength division multiplexing

EEPROM

Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

Endface

The endface of a connector refers to the circular cross-section of the filament where light is emitted and received, and the surrounding ferrule. The endface is often polished to improve upon the endface geometrical properties, which in turn provide better optical coupling. The fiber endface undergoes a visual inspection for defects, as well as testing on an interferometer, for endface geometry that will encourage good mating between connectors. Three main properties are examined on the interferometer.

E2000 Connector

E2000 ConnectorThe E2000 connector holds a single fiber in a ceramic ferrule. E2000’s are small form factor connectors with a moulded plastic body similar to that of an LC. The E2000 also exhibits a push- pull latching mechanism, and integrates a protective cap over the ferrule, which acts as a dust shield and shields users from laser emissions. The protective cap is loaded with an integrated spring to ensure proper closing of the cap. Like other small form factor connectors, the E-2000 connector is suited for high-density applications.

Encoding

A means of combining clock and data information into a self synchronizing stream of signals.

Ethernet

A local-area network standard. The original Ethernet transmits 10 Mbit/s. Other version are Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s, Gigabit Ethernet at 1Gbit/s, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. A standard protocol (IEEE 802.3) for a 10-Mb/s baseband local area network (LAN) bus using carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) as the access method. Ethernet is a standard for using various transmission media, such as coaxial cables, unshielded twisted pairs, and optical fibers.

E1

The European standard for high-speed digital transmission at 2.048 Mbps, with 31 64-KB channels available for traffic. Also called 2-Meg, European T1, or Conference European Post Telecom.

EDFA

Erbium doped fiber amplifier. Fiber amplifier in which the signal to be boosted travels through a special fiber containing, as an additive, the element erbium. Laser light pumped into this special section of fiber excites the valence electrons in the erbium. When the transmitted signal passes through the fiber, the excited electrons give up their extra energy in sync with the transmitted signal, adding to its strength. The output is identical to the input, but now has a much higher power level. EDFAs amplify the optical signal without the need to convert it to an electrical signal and back to optical.

EIA

Electronic Industry Alliance

EMI

Electromagnetic interference. Electromagnetic interference is a disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.

EPON

Ethernet Passive Optic Network

ESCON

Enterprise system connector

Extinction Ratio

The ratio of the low, or OFF optical power level (PL) to the high, or ON optical power level (PH):
Extinction Ratio (%) = (PL/PH) x 100

Eye Pattern

Electromagnetic Compatibility: The ability of electronic equipment to be a “good electromagnetic neighbor”: It neither causes, nor is susceptible to, electromagnetic interference (within the limits of applicable standards).

Eye Pattern

Electromagnetic Compatibility: The ability of electronic equipment to be a “good electromagnetic neighbor”: It neither causes, nor is susceptible to, electromagnetic interference (within the limits of applicable standards).

EMC

A pattern formed by overlaying traces of a series of transmitted pulses in a visual display. The more open the eye, the sharper the distinction between on and off pulses. A diagram that shows the proper function of a digital system. The “openness” of the eye relates to the BER that can be achieved.

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface,A 100Mbps fiber optic cabling standard developed by ANSI. FDDI utilizes a dual counter rotating ring topology for network redundancy.

FCC

Federal Communications Commission) ,The regulatory body for U.S. interstate telecommunications services as well as international service originating in the U.S.

FDA

Abbreviation for Food and Drug Administration. Organization responsible for, among other things, laser safety.

Firewall

A security-oriented network node set up as a boundary to prevent one segment’s traffic from crossing over to another segment. Firewalls are often used to protect LANs from hackers on the Internet.

Flow Control

The procedure for regulating the flow of data between two devices; it prevents the loss of data once a device’s buffer has reached its capacity..

Full Duplex

Simultaneous, independent transmission in both directions.

Fiber Optics

Flexible glass fibers used to conduct energy. Ideal for secure transmissions. If someone tries to tap fiber, light leaks and transmission fails, so a tap can be detected instantly.

Fiber Loss

The amount of signal attenuation in a fiber optic transmission.

Frequency

The measure of the rapidity of alterations of a periodic signal, expressed in cycles per second or Hz.

Fast Ethernet

Ethernet at 100 Mb/s transmission rate. This is defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard

Ferrule

A mechanical component, generally a rigid tube, used to protect and align a fiber in a connector.

Fiber

An optical waveguide consisting of a core and a cladding that is capable of carrying information in the form of light. Optical fibers are typically made of glass. Plastic optical fibers are also available.

Fiber Bend Radius

Radius a fiber can bend before the risk of breakage or increase in attenuation.

FTTx

Fiber to the x. Refers to a host of acronyms based on taking fiber to the home (FTTH), fiber to the node (FTTN), fiber to the curb (FTTC), fiber to the desk (FTTD), fiber to the antenna (FTTA), fiber to the premises (FTTP) and fiber to the tower (FTTT).

Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH)

Fiber optic service to a node located inside an individual home.

FTTC

Fiber-to-the-Curb

FTTD

Fiber to the Desk – FTTD – Fiber optic runs to individual desktops.

Fusion Splice

A permanent joint produced by the application of localized heat sufficient to fuse the ends of two optical fibers, forming a continuous single light path.

Fall Time

Also called turn-off time. The time required for the trailing edge of a pulse to fall from 90% to 10% of its amplitude; the time required for a component to produce such a result. Typically measured between the 90% and 10% points or alternately the 80% and 20% points.

Fibre Channel

An industry-standard specification that originated in Great Britain which details computer channel communications over fiber optics at transmission speeds from 132 Mb/s to 1062.5 Mb/s at distances of up to 10 kilometers.

Filter

A device which transmits only part of the incident energy and may thereby change the spectral distribution of energy.

Fan-Out

A multi-fiber cable constructed in a tight buffered tube design. At a termination point, cable fibers must be separated from the cable to their separate connection positions.

Fiber Optic Cable

A cable containing one or more optical fibers.

Fiber Optic Communication System

The transfer of modulated or unmodulated optical energy through optical fiber media which terminates in the same or different media.

Fiber Optic Link

A transmitter, receiver, and cable assembly that can transmit information between two points.

Fiber Optic Sensor

Any device in which variations in the transmitted power or the rate of transmission of light in optical fiber are the means of measurement or control. Fibers can be used to measure temperature, pressure, strain, voltage, current, liquid level, rotation and particle velocity

Fiberscope

An optical instrument consisting of an objective lens, a coherent (usually flexible) fiber bundle and an eyepiece to examine the output of the fiber bundle.

Fiber Media Converter

A Fiber Media Converter, or fast Ethernet Media Converter is a device that can be used to bridge two Ethernet networks using a single fiber cable, providing two-way communications through one single-mode fiber cable.

GPON

Similar to BPON but based on higher Gigabit speeds. Like BPON, these systems may use an RF overlay for video, but because of their increased bandwidth per subscriber, are also being used for IPTV deployment, in which all services (voice, video and data) are placed on the GPON and the RF video overlay is not required.

Graded-index Fiber

An optics fiber whose core has a nonuniform index of refraction. The core is composed on concentric rings if glass whose refractive ineices decrease from the center axis. The purpose is to reduce model dispersion and thereby increase fiber bandwidth.

GBIC

Gigabit Interface Converter: A removable transceiver module permitting Fibre-Channel and Gigabit-Ethernet physical-layer transport.

High Definition Serial Digital Interface (HD-SDI)

A digitized video interface, standardized in SMPTE-292M, used for broadcast-grade transmission of uncompressed, unencrypted digital television signals.

Hot Swap

The ability to remove and replace components of a machine, usually a computer, while it is operating. Once the appropriate software is installed on the computer, one can plug and unplug the hot-swap component without rebooting.

HFC - Hybrid Fiber/Coax (HFC)

The use of fiber to distribute cable-television signals to nodes, which in turn distribute them to homes over coaxial cable.

HFC Network

A telecommunication technology in which optical fiber and coaxial cable are used in different sections of the network to carry broadband content. The network allows a CATV company to install fiber from the cable headend to serve nodes located close to business and homes, and then from these fiber nodes, use coaxial cable to individual businesses and homes.

HDTV

Abbreviation for high-definition television. Television that has approximately twice the horizontal and twice the vertical emitted resolution specified by the NTSC standard.

Hub

A network device that receives a signal from one station and retransmits to all other connected stations

Half Duplex

Transmission in either direction but not both simultaneously

Hybrid Cable

A fiber optic cable containing two or more different types of fiber, such as 62.5 µm multimode and single-mode

InfiniBand

InfiniBand architecture is an industry standard, channel-based, switched-fabric, interconnect architecture for servers. InfiniBand architecture changes the way servers are built, deployed, and managed.

Infrastructure

The basic facilities, service and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

A civil international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, established to promote standardized telecommunications on a worldwide basis. The ITU-R and the ITU-T are committees under the ITU, which is recognized by the United Nations as the specialized agency for telecommunications.

Insertion Loss

The attenuation caused by the insertion of a device (such as a splice or connection point) to a cable

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) — An international professional society that issues its own standards and is a member of ANSI and ISO.

Interface

The worldwide computer network used for reference, e-mail, and other services. 2) Any large network made up of several smaller networks. 3) A group of networks that are interconnected so they appear to be one continuous large network and can be addressed seamlessly at the OSI Model Network Layer through routers.

Internet

The worldwide computer network used for reference, e-mail, and other services. 2) Any large network made up of several smaller networks. 3) A group of networks that are interconnected so they appear to be one continuous large network and can be addressed seamlessly at the OSI Model Network Layer through routers.

IC

integrated circuit.

Jacket

The outer, protective covering of the cable. Also called the cable sheath.

Jitter

Small and rapid variations in the timing of a waveform due to noise, changes in component characteristics, supply voltages, imperfect synchronizing circuits, etc. See also DDJ, DCD, and RJ.

Jumper

A short fiber optic cable with connectors on both ends.

Kevlar

A very strong, very light, synthetic compound developed by DuPont which is used to strengthen optical cables.

Line Terminating Equipment (LTE)

Network elements that originate and/or terminate line signals.

Loss Budget

The maximum amount of power that is allowed to be lost per optical link

Local Area Network (LAN)

A network that remains within one facility (department, office, building, campus)

Loopback

A diagnostic test in which the transmitted signal is returned to the sending device after passing through all or part of a data communications link or network. A loopback test compares the returned signal with the transmitted signal.

LASER

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Used as a transmitter in optical systems.

LC

Lucent Connector. High-density connector.

LED

Light emitting diodes. Used as a transmitter in lower speed optical systems.

LSZH

Horizontal intrabuilding backbones where limited-smoke, zero-halogen requirements exist.

L-Band

The wavelength range between 1570 nm and 1610 nm used in some CWDM and DWDM applications.

Lightwave

The path of a point on a wavefront. The direction of the lightwave is generally normal (perpendicular) to the wavefront.

Light source

In fiber optics, a generic for the optical signal transmitter in an optical loss test set – OLTS.

Large-Core Fiber

Usually, a fiber with a core of 200µm or more.

Layer

A standard or protocol for signal transmission or processing to perform certain functions. It includes standard interfaces with other layers, which perform other functions.

Local Loop

The part of the telephone network extending from the central (switching) office to the subscriber.

MODEM

An acronym for MOdulate/DEModulate. Modems are data communications devices that convert digital signals to analog signals for transmission over analog public telephone networks.

Multimode

A type of fiber optic cable where the core diameter is much larger than the wavelength of light transmitted. Two common multimode fiber types are 50/125 and 62.5/125.

Multiplexo

A device that divides a transmission into two or more subchannels, either by splitting the frequency band into narrower bands (frequency division) or by allotting a common channel to several transmitting devices, one at a time (time division).

Multipoint Line

A single communications line or circuit that interconnects several stations and usually requires some kind of polling mechanism to address each connected terminal with a unique address code.

Miller Stripper

Tool used for removing the 250 µm or 900 µm coating from fiber.

MTP

Multiple terminations push-pull (MTP) is a type of connector.

MPO

MPO is defined by IEC-61754-76,which is a multiple fiber core connector.

MT-RJ

Mechanical transfer registered jack (MT-RJ) latch is a type of connector.

MU

Miniature unit.

Multi-Fiber Cable

An optical fiber cable that contains two or more fibers.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

A network covering an area larger than a local area network. A series of local area networks, usually two or more, that cover a metropolitan area.

Margin

Allowance for attenuation in addition to that explicitly accounted for in system design.

MTBF

Abbreviation for mean time between failure. Time after which 50% of the units of interest will have failed. Also called MTTF (mean time to failure).

NZDS

Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted fiber. A singlemode fiber with the zero-dispersion wavelength slightly beyond the spectral region for transmission in order to improve performance.

Network Interface Card (NIC)

Network devices that are installed in computers so that they can be connected to a network. Ethernet NICs come in different speeds as well as with connections to different media types.Node: A device or station connected to a network.

NAB

Abbreviation for National Association of Broadcasters. A trade association that promotes and protects the interests of radio and television broadcasters before Congress, federal agencies and the Courts.

Node

1) A terminal of any branch in network topology or an interconnection common to two or more branches in a network.
2) One of the switches forming the network backbone in a switch network.
3) A point in a standing or stationary wave at which the amplitude is a minimum.

Noise

1) An undesired disturbance within the frequency band of interest; the summation of unwanted or disturbing energy introduced into a communications system from man-made and natural sources.
2) A disturbance that affects a signal and that may distort the information carried by the signal.
3) Random variations of one or more characteristics of any entity such as voltage, current, or data

Network Attached Storage (NAS)

Storage elements that connect to a LAN and provide file access services to computer systems. A NAS Storage Element consists of an engine, which implements the file services, and one or more devices, on which data is stored. Much like a SAN, a NAS is used to share storage resources across multiple servers; however, NAS technology does not provide LAN traffic relief.

Network Interface Card (NIC)

An I/O adapter that connects a computer or other type of node to a network. The term NIC is universally used in Ethernet contexts. In Fibre Channel contexts, the terms adapter and NIC are used in preference to host bus adapter (HBA).

NIC

A network adapter board is a circuit board or another hardware component that connects the network directly with the terminal equipment. It can be a plug-in board for the bus system in the terminal equipment. The network adapter board is the physical interface to the communications network. It includes the appropriate jacks for connection to the physical medium.

ODN

Abbreviation for optical distribution network. Term for optical networks being developed for interactive video, audio, and data distribution.

OFNP

Optical Fiber Nonconductive – Plenum.
Cable installed in ducts, plenums, and other spaces used for environmental air must be listed as having adequate fire-resistant and low-smoke producing characteristics.

OFNR

Optical Fiber Nonconductive – Riser. Cable used in riser areas which are building vertical shafts or runs from one floor to another floor.

OFNG

Optical Fiber Nonconductive General Purpose. Type OFNG cable must be resistant to the spread of fire and suitable for general-purpose use, with the exception of risers and plenums.

OLT

Optical Line Terminal. For BPON and GPON systems, this is the electronics that reside in the CO/HE and which control the ONTs served at each subscriber’s location. Typically, OLTs service 16, 32 or 64 ONTs.

ONT

Optical Network Terminal. For BPON and GPON systems, this is the electronics located at the subscriber’s premises.The ONT converts the optical signal to copper and coax-based signals for connection to phones, computers and televisions in the residence

Open Transport Network (OTN)

A network technology that aims at transporting a number of communication protocols over an optical fiber. This includes serial protocols (e.g. RS232) as well as telephony (POTS/ISDN), audio, Ethernet and video (via M-JPEG, MPEG2/4).

OC-1

the lowest optical-transmission rate in the SONET standard, 51.48 Mbps.

OC-48

A fiber-optic line capable of 2400 megabits per second.

OM1

Optical Multimode 1 (62.5/125 mm – 200/500 MHz•km BW)

OM2

Optical Multimode 2 (50/125 µm – 500/500 MHz•km BW)

OM3

Optical Multimode 3 (50/125 µm 1500/500 – MHz•km BW)

OM4

Optical Multimode 4 (50/125 µm 3500/500 – MHz•km BW)

OS1

Optical Single-Mode Fiber. Corning Optical Communications currently manufactures cable to meet OS2 requirements.

OS2

Optical Single-Mode Fiber.

OTDR

Optical time domain reflectometer. Corning Optical Communications OV-1000 Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) provides testing flexibility by combining a rugged platform with field-interchangeable multimode, single-mode and advanced testing modules.

Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM)

A device which adds or drops individual wavelengths from a DWDM system

Optical Amplifier

A device that amplifies an input optical signal without converting it into electrical form. The best developed are optical fibers doped with the rare earth element, erbium. See also EDFA.

Optical Isolator

A component used to block out reflected and unwanted light. Also called an isolator.

Optical Rise Time

The time interval for the rising edge of an optical pulse to transition from 10% to 90% of the pulse amplitude. Alternatively, values of 20% and 80% may be used.

Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA)

A device that allows the details of a region of an optical spectrum to be resolved. Commonly used to diagnose DWDM systems.

Output Power

In fiber optics, this is the radiant power, expressed in watts.

Optical Networking

Processing and switching signals in optical form as well as transmitting them optically.

Packet-over-SONET/SDH (POS)

A communications protocol for transmitting packets over circuit-switched protocols SDH or SONET.

P2P

Piont to Piont

P2MP

Point-to-multipoint

Pigtail

Optical fiber cable that has a connector installed on one end. See Cable Assembly.

PIN Diode

PIN diode is a diode with a wide, lightly doped ‘near’ intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor regions. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts.

PMD

Polarization mode dispersion

PVC

Polyvinylchloride is a type of plastic material used for cable jacketing. Typically used in flame-retardant cables.

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

Any switching communications system, such as Telex, TWX, or public telephone networks, that provides circuit switching to many customers.

Polarization

The direction of the electric field in the lightwave. If the electric field of the lightwave is in the Y Axis, the light is said to be vertically polarized. If the electric field of the lightwave is in the X axis, the light is said to be horizontally polarized.

PON

Abbreviation for passive optical network. A broadband fiber optic access network that uses a means of sharing fiber to the home without running individual fiber optic lines from an exchange point, telco CO, or a CATV headend and the subscriber’s home.

POF

Plastic optical fiber An optical fiber made of plastic.

Packet

In data communications, a sequence of binary digits, including data and control signals, that is transmitted and switched as a composite whole. The packet contains data, control signals, and possibly error control information, arranged in a specific format.

Panda Fiber

Panda is a common style of PM fiber, using round and symetrical stress rods on either side of the core to induce polarization.

Passive Component

A component that doesn’t require outside power.

Passive Device

Any device that does not require a source of energy for its operation. Examples include electrical resistors or capacitors, diodes, optical fiber (photo), cable, wires, glass, lenses, and filters.

PoE (Power over Ethernet)

A method of delivering current to devices using Ethernet connection cables

QSFP

Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable,an industry format including QSFP Transceiver,QSFP DAC,QSFP AOC.

QSFP28

Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable with 28Gbit/s each lane

RJ45

Registered Jack – 45 refers to the interface standard. 8 pin 8 IDC regular jack

Router

A network device that interconnects networks. Routers provide traffic control and filtering functions, they are commonly used to connect a LAN to the Internet

Return Loss

The ratio of the power launched into a cable and the power of the light returned down the fiber. This measurement is expressed in positive decibel units (dB). A higher number is better. Return Loss = 10 log (incident power / returned power).

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

A routing protocol in TCP/IP and NetWare that identifies all attached networks as well as the number of router hops required to reach them.

RS-232

An EIA interface standard between DTE and DCE that uses serial binary data interchange. It’s the industry’s most common interface standard.

RS-422

EIA interface standards operating with RS-449 that specify electrical characteristics for balanced circuits and extend transmission speeds and distances beyond RS-232. RS-422 is a balanced-voltage system with high noise immunity; RS-423 is the unbalanced version.

RS-485

A balanced interface similar to RS-422 but using tristate drivers for multidrop applications.

RoHS

Restriction of hazardous substances. RoHS, also known as Directive 2002/95/EC, restricts the use of specific hazardous materials found in electrical and electronic products.The restricted materials are hazardous to the environment, pollute landfills and are dangerous in terms of occupational exposure during manufacturing and recycling.

Radiation-hardened Fiber

An optical fiber made with core and cladding materials that are designed to recover their intrinsic value of attenuation coefficient, within an acceptable time period, after exposure to a radiation pulse.

Receiver Overload

The maximum acceptable value of average received power for an acceptable BER or performance.

Return Loss

The loss of signal power resulting from the reflection caused at a discontinuity in an optical fiber.

Ring Network

A network topology in which terminals are connected in a point-to-point serial fashion in an unbroken circular configuration.

Receiver

In fiber optics, this is the device at the receiving end of a fiber optic system that converts an optical signal to an electrical signal, and houses the necessary signal processing to output telecommunications, data, or A/V signals.

Reflectance

in fiber optics, the ratio of optical power reflected to the incident power at a connector junction or other component or device. It is expressed as a negative value in decibels – dB.

SFP Loopback

An small form factor test fixture used loop an electrical signal from the Tx side of a port to the Rx side of a port, prior to population with an optical transceiver.

Simplex

Single element (e.g., a simplex connector is a single-fiber connector)

Serial Digital Interface (SDI)

A 10-bit, scrambled, polarity independent interface, based on a 270 Mb/s data rate, with common scrambling for both component ITU-R 601, composite digital video, and four channels of (embedded) digital audio. Most new broadcast digital equipment includes SDI.

Scattering

A second cause of attenuation. Scattering occurs when light collides with individual atoms in the glass.

Single mode

A type of fiber with a small core that allows only one mode of light to propagate.

Server

A computing device that provides a service to users on a network (clients). An example is a file server that stores and maintains documents for retrieval

Switch

A switch is a multiport bridge that segregates different portions of a network for faster network access (See Basic Ethernet Theory – right).

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)

A Bellcore and ANSI standard that defines transmission of synchronous and time sensitive (ex: real time video) information. SONET provides a way for worldwide carriers to connect equipment.

SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers)

A professional group whose committees set standards in television and motion picture industries. The RS-422 SMPTE serial interface is used on video equipment.

SMPTE 259M

Television standard, written by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), that describes a serial digital interface (SDI) for 10-bit 4:2:2 component and 4fsc composite digital transport.

SMPTE 310M

Television standard, written by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), that describes a synchronous serial interface for MPEG-2 digital transport streams.

Spectral Width

A measure of the extent of a spectrum. For a source, the width of wavelengths contained in the output at one half of the wavelength of peak power. Typical spectral widths are 50 to 160 nm for an LED and less than 5 nm for a laser diode.

SC

Subscriber or square connector. Type of connector.

ST

Straight tip. Developed by AT&T. Type of connector.

SONET

Synchronous optical network

SDH

SONET is a contraction of synchronous optical network, the ANSI (North American) standard for transmitting data over fiber optic lines; SDH is an abbreviation of synchronous digital hierarchy, the ITU-T (European) standard for transmitting data over fiber optic lines.

Sensitivity

The minimum acceptable value of received power needed to achieve an acceptable BER or performance. It takes into account power penalties caused by use of a transmitter with worst-case values of extinction ratio, jitter, pulse rise times and fall times, optical return loss, receiver connector degradations, and measurement tolerances. The receiver sensitivity does not include power penalties associated with dispersion, or backreflections from the optical path; these effects are specified separately in the allocation of maximum optical path penalty. Sensitivity usually takes into account worst-case operating and end-of-life (EOL) conditions.

Splitting Ratio

The ratio of power emerging from two output ports of a coupler.

Short wavelength

A commonly used term for light in the 665, 790, and 850 nm ranges.

SFF-8472

Small Form Factor: Specification for optical modules.

SFF

Small Form Factor: An optical module.

SFP

Small Form Factor Pluggable

Tbit/s

Terabits (trillion, or 1012 bits) per second.

T1

In telecommunications, the cable used to transport DS1 service.

Transceiver

Transceiver is combine with Transmitter and Receiver,which is a computer chip that uses fiber optic technology to communicate between other devices.

Transmitter

A device that includes a source and driving electronics. It functions as an electrical-to-optical converter.

Transponder

The part of a satellite that receives and transmits a signal.

Token Ring

A ring-based network scheme in which a token is used to control access to a network. Used by IEEE 802.5 and FDDI.

Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)

Transmitting multiple channels on a single transmission line by connecting terminals, one at a time, at regular intervals, interleaving bits (Bit TDM) or characters (Character TDM) from each terminal.

TELCO

Telecommunications companies

Telcordia

Provides international accepted industry standards and specifications for communication practices.

TIA

Telecommunications Industry Association

Tx

Transmitter

TTL

Abbreviation for transistor-transistor logic. An old logic family.

Total Internal Reflection

The phenomenon of light rays reflecting at the core-clad boundary of an optical fiber, allowing transmission along the length of the fiber. It occurs when the angle of incidence is lower than the critical angle.

UL

Underwriters Laboratories® develops standards and test procedures for products, materials, components, assemblies, tools and equipment, chiefly dealing with product safety. UL also evaluates and certifies the efficiency of a company’s business processes through its management system registration programs.

UPC Connector

Ultra physical contact connector

VCSEL

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser

VOA Variable Optical Attenuator

An abbreviation for variable optical attenuator

Wavelength

The distance between two successive points of an electromagnetic waveform, usually measured in nanometers (nm)

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A network that spans a greater distance and needs the involvement of a public carrier.

Wavelength Selected Laser

Laser that operates at ITU grid wavelength.

Wavelength Dependence

The variation in an optical parameter caused by a change in the operating wavelength.

WDM

Wavelength Division Multiplexer – a technology that separate signals of different wavelengths carried on one fiber,including CWDM and DWDM.

WIC

Wavelength Independent Coupler.

Waveguide

Structure that guides electromagnetic waves along its length. An optical fiber is an optical waveguide.

Zero Dispersion

In single mode fiber, the Wavelength at which the effects of Chromatic Dispersion and Waveguide Dispersion are lowest; zero dispersion provides greatest information carrying capacity.

Zip Cord

Related to Fiber optics, a zip cord is a two-fiber Cable consisting essentially of two single-fiber cables having their jackets conjoined by a strip of Jacket material.

Zip Cord Fiber

Two-fiber Cable with two single Fiber cables having conjoined jackets. The zipcord cable can be easily divided by slitting and pulling the conjoined jackets apart. Zip Cord cables include both loose-buffer and tight-buffer designs.