10 Gigabit Ethernet ( 10GbE ) Standards

Standard Distance Wavelength Media Supported Optics Explanation
10GBase-CX4 (802.3ak) 15m NA Twin-ax copper XENPAK

X2

XFP

Published in 2004 by 802.3 (as 802.3ak-2004), was the first 10 Gigabit Ethernet copper standard. It uses the XAUI 4-lane PCS (Clause 48) and copper cabling similar to that used by InfiniBand technology. It has a maximum distance of 15 meters (49 ft). Each lane carries 3.125 GB of signaling bandwidth. CX4 offers the advantages of low power, low cost and low latency, but has a too-large form factor and more bulky cables than the newer single lane SFP+ standard and a much shorter reach than fiber or 10GBASE-T.d considerably more costly than Category 5 or 6 UTP.
10GBase-KR (802.3ap) 1m NA Improved FR-4 NA The latest IEEE 802.3ap v3.3 standard defines a set of informative characteristics for the operation of 10Gbps Backplane Ethernet (10GbE). Primarily, this standard (10GBASE-KR) is intended for backplane configurations utilizing two connectors with controlled impedance in differential signaling environments with possible lengths of up to 1 meter (39 in) on copper based printed circuit boards. The performance of such an interconnect is highly dependent on implementation.
10GBase-T 100m NA UTP NA Published in 2006 by IEEE 802.3an,10GBase-T is a physical layer (PHY) transmission device for 10Gbps Ethernet over twisted-pair copper. The goal of this copper standard is to approximate RJ-45 connectivity of 100 meters. It is intended to improve the performance and distance of copper cabling at a cost that is lower than fiber.
10GBase-CU NA Twinax cable XFP

SFP+

As defined in SFF-8431,10GBase-CU is a standard for direct attach copper cable assemblies that are effectively constructed out of a pair of SFP+ or XFP modules with the OE components replaced with copper cabling. It can reach 7 meters on passive copper cables.
10GBase-SR (802.3ae)

10GBASE-SW

300m 850nm MMF XENPAK

X2

XFP

SFP+

10GBase-SR is the original multi mode optics specification and is still by far the most commonly used.  As it uses a single, low-cost solid state laser assembly, it is also the lowest cost of the optical modules available for a 10GbE platform. However, 10GBase-SR is very sensitive to fiber type and can only reach 300m on OM3 fiber.
10GBase-LR

10GBASE-LW

10km 1310nm SMF XENPAK

X2

XFP

SFP+

10GBase-LR uses higher cost optics (1310nm) than SR and requires more complex alignment of the optics to support 10km link over single mode fiber.There is no minimum distance for LR, either, so it is suitable for short connections over single mode fiber as well.
10GBase-LRM 220m 1310nm MMF XENPAK

X2

XFP

SFP+

The replacement to LX4, 10GBase-LRM reach up to 220m over standard multimode fiber, but without the complexity of the LX4 optics. Instead, a single laser operating at 1310nm is used. Due to To ensure that specifications are met over FDDI-grade, OM1 and OM2 fibers, the transmitter should be coupled through a mode conditioning fiber optic cable. No mode conditioning patch cable is required for applications over OM3 or OM4.
10GBase-ER

10GBASE-EW

40km 1550nm SMF XENPAK

X2

XFP

SFP+

This is Extended Reach single-mode fiber optic cabling that uses a 1550 nm laser. It has a standard reach of 30 km, but may be reach to 40 km when considering engineered links.
10GBase-ZR

10GBase-ZW

80km 1550nm SMF XENPAK

X2

XFP

SFP+

ZR reach up to 80km over single mode fiber. Due to the very high transmit power, significant attenuation is needed for shorter links. Interestingly, 10GBase-ZR is actually not an IEEE standard, but created by the vendors.
10GBase-LX4 300m

10km

1310nm MMF

SMF

NA Supports traditional FDDI grade multimode fiber for distances up to

300 meters using Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM), which lowers

the transmission rate of each wavelength to 3.125Gb. The LX4 standard also

supports single-mode fiber for up to 10 km. LX4 is more expensive than both SR

and LR because it requires four times the optical and electrical circuitry in addition

to optical multiplexers. With the ready availability of OM3/OM4 fiber and newer standards that provide long reach over multimode with a single laser that provide a lower cost, LX4 is rapidly becoming obsolete.

10GBASE–PR 20km 1270 nm/1577 nm SMF 10G EPON 10GBASE-PR (“PON”) originally specified in IEEE 802.3av, it defined the physical Medium dependent (PMD) sublayer for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks operating at 10.3125 Gbps line rate in either only one or both directions.
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